Kim Harrisberg –
From drone-mapping in Mozambique to community radio weather programmes in Zambia, aid agencies are innovating to help millions in drought-ravaged southern Africa prepare for climate threats and produce enough food on a warming planet.
Across the region, a record 45 million people face growing levels of hunger due to repeated drought, widespread floods, lost harvests and an economic crisis in Zimbabwe, the World Food Programme (WFP) said last week. A business-as-usual approach to providing aid will no longer do, humanitarian officials said.
“We cannot see food insecurity through an emergency lens alone,” said Michael Charles, head of the southern African office for the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC).
“We will always be chasing shadows if we don’t take a step back, go back to the drawing board, and work as a collective on long-term solutions with more impact,” he added. Failing to do so would be “devastating”, he said.
Over the past year, much of the central and western parts of southern Africa have experienced their lowest rainfall since 1981, according to the United Nations.
Lola Castro, WFP’s director for the region, told journalists last week a “silent catastrophe” was playing out.
The humanitarian innovation required to address it includes the use of new technology like drones but also simple solutions that deploy limited resources effectively, said Bettina Koelle, a researcher with the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre.
“Aid groups need to engage in constant dialogue with those most affected by climate shocks to understand what it is they need,” she said. “There are no quick fixes.”
Jesse Mason, an atmospheric scientist with WFP, and his team use long-term meteorological forecasts to predict weather patterns up to six months ahead and to finance humanitarian responses upfront.
Bringing these projections to government, donors and farmers can stop “the vicious cycle” of responding to climate shocks and redirect energy to better preparation, Mason said.
Zambia’s government, meanwhile, has partnered with the United Nations Development Programme on a seven-year project aimed at safeguarding farmers’ incomes against climate threats. Using community radio broadcasts in local languages, forecasts are announced every hour to reflect erratic weather patterns, and tips provided on “climate-smart” agriculture.
So far 170,000 small-scale farmers across 16 districts have been involved in the project, some via extension officers on motorcycles who bring new information directly to them.
In Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi, insurance schemes for 140,000 rural households have been rolled out by the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA), which is backed by African, Caribbean, Pacific and European states.
Farmers sign up via their mobile phones, with low rainfall measurements triggering payouts they can use to purchase new seeds to replace crops destroyed by drought.
“People are tired of hearing about climate problems,” said Oluyede Ajayi, a senior programme coordinator for the CTA. “We need solutions — especially farmers whose families, livestock and livelihoods depend on them.” The unpredictability of climate change makes data and information from the ground even more valuable, said Koelle.
WFP has used drones to map vulnerable parts of Mozambique and Madagascar ahead of the upcoming cyclone season so they know where people are and how to get aid in, said Castro. “Drones will be used for the first time to help in search and rescue operations, to identify people stuck in trees so helicopters can come and pick them up,” she added.
— Thomson Reuters Foundation
Kim Harrisberg –