1- For people with many chronic conditions (e.g ophthalmic, dermatological, neurological), fasting may have no impact and can continue as normal. If oral medication is required, fasting can be facilitated by reducing dose to once or twice daily. Topical medication, including patches, is acceptable, but injections are not as they may draw blood.
2- Physical examinations, including rectal and vaginal examinations do not invalidate the fast. Clinical investigations such as blood tests, or those requiring intravenous access or oral contrast, would preclude the fast during those particular days. Where these are elective outpatient investigations, many patients may prefer to reschedule them outside Ramadhan. Urgent investigations should clearly not be delayed.