US talks tough on trade deficit as NAFTA discussions begin

WASHINGTON: The United States drew a hard line for renegotiating the North American Free Trade Agreement, demanding major concessions aimed at slashing trade deficits with Mexico and Canada and boosting US content for autos.
At the start of talks in Washington, US President Donald Trump’s top trade adviser, Robert Lighthizer, said Trump was not interested in “a mere tweaking” of the 23-year-old pact, which Trump has threatened to scrap without major changes.
“We feel that NAFTA has fundamentally failed many, many Americans and needs major improvement,” Lighthizer, the US trade representative, said at the start of the talks, which reflected Trump’s relentless criticism that NAFTA has caused massive US manufacturing job losses.
Lighthizer put Mexico and Canada on notice that the United States would use its clout as their biggest export customer to wring concessions, saying the United States wanted substantially tougher rules of origin, including a requirement of “substantial US content” for autos.
He also signalled a fight over NAFTA’s trade dispute settlement system for changes that would allow more anti-dumping duties against Canada and Mexico, saying this provision should “respect our national sovereignty.”
Canadian Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland suggested earlier this week that her country could walk away if the United States insisted on scrapping the “Chapter 19” trade dispute settlement system that requires the use of binational panels.
In her opening statement, Freeland took a swipe at the US fixation on cutting its trade deficits, saying: “Canada does not view trade surpluses or deficits as a primary measure of whether a trading relationship works.
US-Canada-Mexico trade has quadrupled since NAFTA took effect in 1994, surpassing $1 trillion in 2015.
Lighthizer blamed NAFTA for a direct loss of 700,000 US manufacturing jobs since the pact took effect in 1994, a period that coincides with increasing automation across all industries that has allowed more output with fewer workers. Auto industry groups have warned against changing the pact’s rules of origin, which govern how much of a product’s components must originate from NAFTA countries. They said the pact has allowed them to build a competitive North American supply base that has helped boost exports of US-assembled vehicles globally.
The pact also has massively boosted US farm income by increasing agricultural exports to both Mexico and Canada.
“We do not want them to use us as a trading tool and to do harm to the agricultural sector in all three countries,” the president of the American Farm Bureau Federation, Zippy Duvall, told a news conference on Wednesday.
Corporate chief executives have been sounding “do no harm” warnings on NAFTA for months. Trump’s relationship with business executives became a high-profile issue this week as he disbanded two business advisory councils after several CEOs quit in protest over his remarks blaming weekend violence at a rally in Virginia on the protesters who opposed white nationalists as well as the white nationalists themselves. Canadian and Mexican officials at the NAFTA talks on Wednesday declined to weigh in. — Reuters