Japanese workers put up with long hours and unpaid overtime under pressure from cost-saving companies, and figures from government, which wants more money in workers’ pockets to boost consumer spending, appear to underestimate the problem.
Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is trying to enact labour reforms as part of his “Abenomics” plan to end decades of stagnant growth and deflation.
His proposals include measures to cut working hours and limit overtime, raise wages for temporary workers and make things easier for employees with children.
By law, both management and rank-and-file employees should get paid for extra work, but companies have been discouraging overtime claims for so long that employees accept it as normal.
Government data shows that Japanese work an average of 14.2 hours of overtime a month, but 2,000 respondents in a recent survey by the Japanese Trade Union Confederation said they worked an average of 40.3 hours of overtime a month, and get paid for just 22.7.
“Workers often face pressure from their superiors, sometimes in subtle, unspoken ways, to claim less overtime hours than actually worked,” said Toshiaki Matsumoto, Chief Executive of HR Strategy, a human resources consultancy.
“Often I don’t bother claiming overtime because my projects would run over budget, and that would hurt my chances for promotion,” said one 38-year-old IT engineer who asked not to be named for fear of upsetting his boss. He estimates that he works an average of 50 unpaid overtime hours a month, often leaving the office at 8 pm, spending some time with his wife and 3-year-old son before bed, then getting up at 3 am to tackle unfinished work.
A 26-year-old Tokyo man who works in sales at a steel trading company said his employer regularly pressured workers into reducing hours on their overtime forms. In busy times he works from 7 am to midnight, plus Saturdays. “The amount of overtime has left me exhausted,” he said.
At times, the punishingly long hours can have tragic consequences.
The suicide of a 24-year-old ad agency worker who clocked up 105 hours of overtime in the month before she fell into depression was last month ruled “karoshi”, or death by overwork.
Abe’s pleas for businesses to put up wages to kickstart the economy have largely fallen on deaf ears.
But if the results for the union survey are extrapolated nationwide, just paying employees for the hours they work could push up consumer spending by 13.4 per cent, according to calculations based on monthly wage data and the propensity to consume. — Reuters